Haben Sie Verbindung mit uns auf:         Aktive Mitglieder : 16613
PLACES TO VISIT IN AFGHANISTAN   CMT fair – Stuttgart 2017 to showcase tourist Albania   WELCOME TO ALGERIA   Main attractions and man-made landmarks   ANDORRA SHOPING   Welcome to Angola   12 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in Anguilla   Antigua Barbuda Wildlife & Marine Life   Bariloche   Ancient Cave Dwellings of Armenia   16 facts about Aruba that will surprise you   20 free things to do in Melbourne   INNSBRUCK ALTRADT   TOP 4 SHOPPING MALLS IN BAKU   The Bahamas: beaches   Best steakhouses in Bahrain   St. Martin’s Island   Key Facts About Barbados   Visa-free entry for foreigners to Grodno   SEMOIS VALLEY   Explore Bermuda's 500 years of history   Road to Merak leads to declining tourist arrivals   Top 10 Places to Party In La Paz   Albanian Airways Holiday   Bumba Meu Boi: a guide to the festival of the ox in Brazil   Ten interesting facts about Brunei   The Ministry of Tourism held a national meeting with representatives of the EDEN network in Bulgaria   SCUBA DIVING IN SIHANOUKVILLE   Winnipeg’s best places to eat: the spoils of a food revolution   Explore the beutiful landscape and learn the culture of Santigo Island   14 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in the Cayman Islands   Patagonia, land of Magellan   8 Most Popular Chinese Dishes You Should Eat   A PHOTOGRAPHERS GUIDE TO VISITING CHRISTMAS ISLAND   Cocos (Keeling) Islands traveller information   From Panama to Colombia...by boat   Insider’s Guide to Travel in the Cook Islands   ZADAR   Curaçao Holidays and Festivals   KYRENIA   Konopiště Chateau and the Archduke's Trophies   Nyhavn, Copenhagen   WHAT TO DO IN DJIBOUTI?   10 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in Dominica   10 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in the Dominican Republic   Hiking Mt Ramelau: a guide to scaling Timor-Leste's highest peak   Galapagos Island   17 Non Royal Mummies Have Discovered in Minya Cemetery   Asmara – Africa’s Modernist City became UNESCO World Heritage site   Neeme Lall Gallery   COFFEE   10 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in the Falkland Islands   FAROESE FESTIVAL AND MUSIC LIFE   Island paradise: the best resorts in Fiji   A REFRESHING DIP IN ICY WATER?   The Cave of Pont d'Arc in Ardèche   Best Time to Visit French Guiana   French Polynesia — History and Culture   Приглашаем встретить Новый Год 2017 в Грузии!   Neuschwanstein   Gorham’s provides ‘dramatic backdrop’ for BBC Horizon film   Greece-Where The Democracy And Philosophy Was Born   10 Interesting Facts You Didn’t Know About Greenland   Scuba Diving in Grenada   A Caribbean Secret: 10 Reasons To Love The Guadeloupe Islands   The 10 Most Beautiful Beaches In Guam   GUATEMALA ADVANCES 17 POSITIONS IN COMPETITIVENESS INDEX OF TRAVEL   Bike touring in Guyana: practical information   The Top 10 Most Beautiful Places in Haiti   Heard Island and McDonald Islands Travel Guide   Top 8 Things to Do with Kids in Hong Kong   Highlights of Budapest   Mysterious Iceland   Best Asian Tours offer Holi celebration at hidden places related to lord Krishna at Nandgaon and Barsana   Komodo National Park, Indonesia   Reinhold messner climbing experience   Iraq History, Language and Culture   Shows & Entertainment in Ireland   Having Trouble With Acid Reflux? Give These Tips A Shot   Венеция карнавал 2017   Jamaica Holidays and Festivals   5 OF TOKYO’S WEIRDEST CAFÉS   Petra   Southern Kazakhstan Tourism Destinations   VISITING MAASAI MARA   Scuba Diving in Kiribati   North Korea Country Profile   Circumnavigating Seoul: Hiking the ancient city wall   Kuwait Mosques   To Kazakhstan with Kyrgyz visa and vice versa   Bolaven Plateau Trekking   Kuldiga   Lebanon History, Language and Culture   The Citytrain Winetasting Tour   Lithuania for the first time: travel guide   Hiking in Luxembourg   10 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in Macau   WINTER IN MACEDONIA   MADAGASCAR DESTINATION   Choose your own Malaysian island adventure   Water Sports   Learning English in Malta   Marshall Islands Travel Profile   Diving in Micronesia   Hancu Monastery   Cathedral   Hidden Gems of Mongolia: 8 Experiences for the 60+ Traveler   Jbel Toubkal 4167m, Morocco   Introduction to Myanmar   Namib Desert (Sandwich Harbour)   Nauru Travel Profile   Future of Natural & Wild Tourist Destinations in Nepal   Amsterdam’s Most Underrated Attractions   Top 10 Things to do in New Caledonia   New Zealand's most wondrous night-time experiences   Nicaragua under radar destinations for 2016.   Niue: Falling in love with the Pacific   Norfolk Island Travel Profile   Scuba Diving North Mariana Islands   SKI THE ICONIC NORWEGIAN FJORD REGION   Top 10: best luxury hotels in Oman   The 10 Most Beautiful Places You Should See In Pakistan   3 Luxury Hotels in Palau Where we Could Relax all Day   EDWARD RETAINS DIAMOND LEAGUE TITLE   Kayaking in Papua New Guinea   Travel in Paraguay   Sacred Valley tour guide.   Singapore with kids: best places to entertain tots in the Lion City   Pitcairn Islands Travel Profile   Pier in Sopot   The Cave of Escoural   Al Shahaniya Camel Racetrack   Visions of Heaven; Romania's famous painted monasteries are the beautiful legacy of a bygone era and vibrant centres of faith for today   Moscow will host the Day of France   RWANDA, LAND OF A 1000 HILLS & HOME OF THE MOUNTAIN GORILLAS   13 Reasons Samoa Is The Pacific's Best-Kept Secret   Visit to the "Castelli"   Saudi Arabia Country Profile   Top 5 day trips in Singapore   The National Park of Slovenský raj   Adele in Slovenia   Solomon Islands travel guide and things to do: 20 reasons to visit   South Georgia / South Sandwich Islands - Antarctic Travel   LANGUAGE/IDIOMATIC TOURISM   Traditional Sinhala & Hindu new year celebrations in April   7 Best Places to Visit in Suriname Before You Die   SKIING THE NORTHERNMOST MOUNTAINS IN THE WORLD: SVALBARD   Sigtuna   Salt Mines   Syrian Arab Republic Country Profile   The 10 Most Beautiful Places In Taiwan   Pamir Mountains among first 100 green tourist destinations in the world   Why Tanzania?   Bangkok's best views: top vantage points to admire the Thai capital   Tokelau Travel Profile   Top 5 Tonga Resorts   The Last Monastery Which Virgin Mary Lived in secret Before Coming To EPHESUS   Turkmenistan — Shopping and Leisure   Tuvalu Travel Profile   experience experiatial tourism in uganda   Пять пляжей Ялты получили синий флаг   Affordable luxury: Abu Dhabi’s top 10 best hotels   Cruise Excursions from Liverpool Cruise Terminal   STRATFORD-UPON-AVON   What Kind of Food Do Uruguayans Eat?   Uzbekistan cancel visas   Top 10 facts about Vanuatu   Piazza San Pietro (St. Peter's Square)   Venezuela — Attractions   Da Nang City a long stay destination in Vietnam   Wallis and Futuna Travel Profile   Yemen Country Profile   Get a flavour of the real Jersey with Four Farm Stalls   The Best Guernsey Boat Trips   Visa Information for Montenegro   Maglič   Always near sun and bath   Bonaire — Festivals and Events   Top ten reasons to visit Curacao   Palestinian territories   Easy Travel System   
BEITRETEN
Hotels Hotels Katalog Reiseführer Jachten Firmen Transport Koordinator
BEITRETEN
Eingang
EINGANG
Fügen sie e-mail ein!
ABONNIEREN

Iraq History, Language and Culture

History of Iraq

Mesopotamia – the core of modern Iraq – was at the heart of the Sumerian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires between the 7th century BC and 100 AD. After brief spells under the rule of the Romans and the Sassanids, Iraq was subject to the Arab conquest in 633 AD.

Later, the Arab Caliphate took control of the territory during the late 12th and early 13th centuries before being dislodged by the Mongols. At the end of the 14th century, Iraq was conquered and subsumed into the empire ruled by Timur (also known as Tamerlane). The Turks were the next imperial invaders, ruling from the early 16th century until the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

In 1920, Iraq was placed under a League of Nations mandate administered by the UK, whose forces had occupied most of the country. The country achieved independence in 1932, but British forces intervened once again in 1941 to combat a pro-Nazi coup.

In 1958, the ruling Hashemite Dynasty was overthrown by a group of radical army officers inspired by the example of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt, and led by Brigadier Abdul al-Karim Kassem. The new regime failed to consolidate its position, however, and relied on a precarious coalition of forces, which quickly disintegrated. Kassem was killed in 1963 during another coup.

In 1968, Iraq's final coup in recent history brought to power the Ba'ath Party. In 1979, after a power struggle within the Ba'ath Party, Vice President Saddam Hussein took over as president and party leader. Saddam's main objectives were to establish his country as the undisputed leader of the Arab world and to overcome the Arabs' two principal enemies in the Middle East: Iran and Israel. With Iran in chaos, he launched a full-scale invasion in 1980. The Iraqis failed to win and the fighting went on until 1988.

The Iraqi economy was crippled by the war and had incurred an enormous foreign debt, much of which was owed to neighbouring Kuwait; a dispute over oil reserves provided the pretext for the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. This led to the Gulf War, after which no-fly zones were established by the US and UK. In 2003, a US-led coalition went to war again in Iraq and, finally ousted Saddam Hussein.

Since then, Iraq has struggled to rebuild its economy, as well as a workable democracy. After the eventual departure of US troops in 2011, Iraq became embroiled in Syria's civil war, and the radical-Islamist Daesh has seized huge swathes of the country. The fighting shows little sign of letting up.

Did you know?
• Iraq in Arabic means ‘the fertile’.
• Noak’s ark is believed to have been built in modern-day Iraq.
• The traditional music of Iraq, maqam, is based on Arabic poetry.

Iraq Culture

Religion:
Islam. Muslims make up 95% of the population, with considerably more Shiites than Sunni. Others are Christians who belong to various sects, including Chaldeans, Assyrians, Syrian and Roman Catholics, Orthodox Armenians and Jacobites. Other religious minorities are the Yezidis and the Sabaeans, or Mandeans, who are followers of John the Baptist.

Social conventions:
Owing to a long and varied history, Iraq is a culturally rich country. Today, traditional Islamic culture predominates, with Koranic law playing an active role in the day-to-day life of the country, and visitors should be careful to respect this and act accordingly. Visitors should always address their hosts by full name and title. Traditional Arab hospitality is followed as a rule, in accordance with religious law. Conservative and discreet dress should be worn in observance of local Islamic laws.

Social conventions in Iraqi Kurdistan are more flexible. This northern region of Iraq has been semi-autonomous since 1991. Many women wear western fashions and no headscarves.

Photography: There is a need for extreme caution when photographing anything of a sensitive nature. This includes photographs of local people (the Muslim religion does not allow the representation of human or animal images in any form); and, most importantly, any government installations, buildings or indeed anything else that may be considered off-limits to visitors. If in any doubt, do not take a photo.

Language in Iraq

80% Arabic (official). Other languages spoken include Kurdish, Persian, Chaldean, Assyrian and Armenian. English is quite widely spoken in urban centres.

In the northern region known as Iraqi Kurdistan, many people, especially younger Kurds, will speak only Kurdish with no Arabic. Although, English is widely spoken in towns.